El mundo de la literatura es grotescamente amplio, con una cantidad de autores que, a lo largo de los años, han aportado su pequeño grano de arena al mundo literario. Sin embargo, algunos son más reconocidos que otros por diversas razones, incluso para aquellas personas que no son muy allegadas a la lectura, algunos nombres son reconocidos. Pablo Neruda no es la excepción.
Son muchos quiénes reconocen este seudónimo utilizado por el escritor Ricardo Eliécer Neftalí Reyes Basoalto, cuyo país natal es Chile. Este poeta ha sido reconocido como uno de los más importantes representantes de la literatura latinoamericana durante años. Sin embargo, poco se sabe de su vida y es precisamente lo que abordaremos en esta oportunidad.
The Aristipposian Poet
La Vida Que Das: Pablo Neruda
celebrando su vida como poeta
Julio 11 a las once de la noche EST
Es importante mencionar que, antes de que su poesía cautivara, no solo a Latinoamérica, sino al mundo entero, este no fue más que un chileno común nacido en la región central de Chile, específicamente en la ciudad de Parral, en el año 1904. Fue hijo de un conductor de ferrocarril y una maestra, quiénes fueron José del Carmen Reyes Morales y Rosa Basoalto, esta última pereció poco después del parto por una tuberculosis.
No obstante, a la edad de dos años, el joven Ricardo, que en un futuro optaría por el seudónimo de Pablo Neruda para dedicarse a la poesía, fue trasladado a la ciudad sureña de Temuco. Esto fue debido a que su padre, tras un largo período, contrajo nupcias con la joven Trinidad Cándida Marverde. Años más tarde dedicaría un poema a esta mujer titulado “La Mamadre”.
Desde muy pequeño, el joven Neruda se vio particularmente interesado en la naturaleza que lo rodeaba. En los grandes bosques y el increíble mar que parecía ser una constante en la región del sur de Chile. A través de los años, este encanto se podrá ver reflejado en su amplia y exquisita obra poética, en donde mencionará múltiples veces estos detalles.
Más tarde, es ingresado al Liceo de Hombres de Temuco, para, finalmente, durante estos años, conocer a la también poeta Gabriela Mistral, una asombrosa mujer que, al pasar los años, también recibirá el Premio Nóbel de Literatura. Para ese momento, ella trabajaba en el Liceo de Niñas de la ciudad, donde tenía el cargo de directora. Es precisamente su influencia que lleva a Pablo Neruda a introducirse verdaderamente en la narrativa rusa.
No fue sino hasta la madurez de su juventud, en 1921, que Neruda pudo trasladarse a otro lugar, a la metrópolis de Chile, para estudiar. Santiago, lejos del apacible mar y los frondosos bosques nativos y australes, era una ciudad en toda regla, en donde la promesa de un futuro lo esperaba. En un principio, su principal objetivo fue continuar la carrera de Pedagogía en francés, en el Instituto Pedagógico de la Universidad de Chile.
Fue aquí donde comenzó su vida como poeta, especialmente porque comenzó a relacionarse con otros escritores jóvenes de la época. Gracias a ello participa en la bohemia literaria de ese momento y se involucra en actividades de la Federación de Estudiantes de Chile. Pasa sus días entre períodos de ávidas lecturas e intensos procesos de escribir y crear poesía.
Finalmente, se adentró en el mundo de la poesía apropiadamente con su primer libro, publicado en 1923, llamado Crepusculario. El mismo fue acogido con bastante calidez por parte del público, en donde se demostró que Pablo Neruda tenía un talento innato para la escritura, específicamente para la poesía. Es aquí donde su largo camino de logros comienza, atrayendo a todos hasta su increíble obra.
Un año más tarde, después de publicar su primera obra y ser acogido con gran entusiasmo por la crítica y el público, decide hacer su aparición con “Veinte poemas de amor” y “Una canción desesperada”, creando un repentino revuelo en todo el sector literario de Chile. Actualmente, este es conocido como uno de los poemarios amorosos con mayor reconocimiento en la poesía contemporánea.
Pablo Neruda dejó más de 45 obras. Actualmente es un escritor que es nombrado y estudiado en las principales universidades y sectores literarios del mundo. Por esta y más razones, su obra perdura en el tiempo, al igual que su increíble legado, que es tan imperecedero como su labor.
Fuente: Pablo Neruda
Pablo Neruda, born Neftalí Ricardo Reyes Basoalto, July 12, 1904, in Parral, Chile, is the poet, diplomat, and politician who was awarded the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1971. He was perhaps the most important Latin American poet of the 20th century.
Neruda was the son of José del Carmen Reyes, a railway worker, and Rosa Basoalto. His mother died within a month of Neruda’s birth, and two years later the family moved to Temuco, a small town farther south in Chile, where his father remarried. Neruda was a precocious boy who began to write poetry at age 10. His father tried to discourage him from writing and never cared for his poems, which was probably why the young poet began to publish under the pseudonym Pablo Neruda, which he was legally to adopt in 1946. He entered the Temuco Boys’ School in 1910 and finished his secondary schooling there in 1920. Tall, shy, and lonely, Neruda read voraciously and was encouraged by the principal of the Temuco Girls’ School, Gabriela Mistral, a gifted poet who would herself later become a Nobel laureate.
The Aristipposian Poet
The Life You Give: Pablo Neruda (in Spanish)
in celebration of his life in literature
July 11 at 11pm EST
Neruda first published his poems in the local newspapers and later in magazines published in the Chilean capital, Santiago. In 1921 he moved to Santiago to continue his studies and become a French teacher. There he experienced loneliness and hunger and took up a bohemian lifestyle. His first book of poems, Crepusculario, was published in 1923. The poems, subtle and elegant, were in the tradition of Symbolist poetry, or rather its Hispanic version, Modernismo. His second book, Veinte poemas de amor y una canción desesperada (1924; Twenty Love Poems and a Song of Despair), was inspired by an unhappy love affair. It became an instant success and is still one of Neruda’s most popular books. The verse in Twenty Love Poems is vigorous, poignant, and direct, yet subtle and very original in its imagery and metaphors. The poems express young, passionate, unhappy love perhaps better than any book of poetry in the long Romantic tradition.
At age 20, with two books published, Neruda had already become one of the best-known Chilean poets. He abandoned his French studies and began to devote himself entirely to poetry. Three more books appeared in quick succession: Tentativa del hombre infinito (1926; “Attempt of the Infinite Man”); Anillos (1926; “Rings”), in collaboration with Tomás Lago; and El hondero entusiasta (1933; “The Enthusiastic Slingshooter”). Yet his poetry was not a steady source of income, so he translated hastily from several languages and published magazine and newspaper articles. Neruda’s future looked uncertain without a steady job, so he managed to get himself appointed honorary consul to Rangoon in Burma (now Yangôn, Myanmar). For the next five years he represented his country in Asia. He continued to live in abject poverty, however, since as honorary consul he received no salary, and he was tormented by loneliness.
From Rangoon Neruda moved to Colombo in Ceylon (now Sri Lanka). He increasingly came to identify with the South Asian masses, who were heirs to ancient cultures but were downtrodden by poverty, colonial rule, and political oppression. It was during these years in Asia that he wrote Residencia en la tierra, 1925–1931 (1933; Residence on Earth). In this book Neruda moves beyond the lucid, conventional lyricism of Twenty Love Poems, abandoning normal syntax, rhyme, and stanzaic organization to create a highly personalized poetic technique. His personal and collective anguish gives rise to nightmarish visions of disintegration, chaos, decay, and death that he recorded in a cryptic, difficult style inspired by Surrealism. These puzzling and mysterious poems both attract and repel the reader with the powerful and awe-inspiring vision they present of a modern descent into hell.
In 1930 Neruda was named consul in Batavia (modern Jakarta), which was then the capital of the Dutch East Indies (now Indonesia). There he fell in love with a Dutch woman, Maria Antonieta Hagenaar, and married her. In 1932 Neruda returned to Chile, but he still could not earn a living from his poetry. In 1933 he was appointed Chilean consul in Buenos Aires, Argentina. There he met the Spanish poet Federico García Lorca, who at that time was traveling in Argentina and who was to become a close friend and an enthusiastic defender of Neruda’s poetry.
In 1934 Neruda took up an appointment as consul in Barcelona, Spain, and soon he was transferred to the consulate in Madrid. His success there was instantaneous after García Lorca introduced him. Neruda’s new friends, especially Rafael Alberti and Miguel Hernández, were involved in radical politics and the Communist Party. Neruda shared their political beliefs and moved ever closer to communism. In the meantime, his marriage was foundering. He and his wife separated in 1936, and Neruda met a young Argentine woman, Delia del Carril, who would be his second wife until their divorce in the early 1950s.
A second, enlarged edition of the Residencia poems entitled Residencia en la tierra, 1925–35 was published in two volumes in 1935. In this edition, Neruda begins to move away from the highly personal, often hermetic poetry of the first Residencia volume, adopting a more extroverted outlook and a clearer, more accessible style in order to better communicate his new social concerns to the reader. This line of poetic development was interrupted suddenly by the outbreak of the Spanish Civil War in 1936, however. While García Lorca was executed by the Nationalists and Alberti and Hernández fought at the front, Neruda traveled in and out of Spain to gather money and mobilize support for the Republicans. He wrote España en el corazón (1937; Spain in My Heart) to express his feelings of solidarity with them. The book was printed by Republican troops working with improvised presses near the front lines.
In 1937 Neruda returned to Chile and entered his country’s political life, giving lectures and poetry readings while also defending Republican Spain and Chile’s new centre-left government. In 1939 he was appointed special consul in Paris, where he supervised the migration to Chile of many defeated Spanish Republicans who had escaped to France. In 1940 he took up a post as Chile’s consul general in Mexico. He also began work on a long poem, Canto general (1950; “General Song,” Eng. trans. Canto general), resonant with historical and epic overtones, that would become one of his key works. In 1943, during a trip to Peru, Neruda climbed to the ancient Inca city of Machu Picchu. The strong emotions aroused by the sight of this spectacular ruin inspired one of his finest poems, Alturas de Macchu Picchu (1943; Heights of Macchu Picchu). This powerful celebration of pre-Columbian civilization would become the centrepiece of Canto general.
In the meantime, Neruda suffered a stunning reversal in his native country. He had returned to Chile in 1943, was elected a senator in 1945, and also joined the Communist Party. He campaigned for the leftist candidate Gabriel González Videla in the elections of 1946, only to see President Videla turn to the right two years later. Feeling betrayed, Neruda published an open letter critical of Videla; as a consequence, he was expelled from the Senate and went into hiding to avoid arrest. In February 1948 he left Chile, crossing the Andes Mountains on horseback by night with the manuscript of Canto general in his saddlebag.
In exile Neruda visited the Soviet Union, Poland, Hungary, and Mexico. In Mexico he again met Matilde Urrutia, a Chilean woman whom he had first encountered in 1946. Their marriage would last until the end of his life, and she would inspire some of the most passionate Spanish love poems of the 20th century. The third volume of Neruda’s Residencia cycle, Tercera residencia, 1935–45 (1947; “Third Residence”), completed his rejection of egocentric angst and his open espousal of left-wing ideological concerns. His communist political beliefs receive their culminating expression in Canto general. This epic poem celebrates Latin America—its flora, its fauna, and its history, particularly the wars of liberation from Spanish rule and the continuing struggle of its peoples to obtain freedom and social justice. It also, however, celebrates Joseph Stalin, the bloody Soviet dictator in power at the time.
In 1952 the political situation in Chile once again became favourable, and Neruda was able to return home. By that time his works had been translated into many languages. Rich and famous, he built a house on Isla Negra, facing the Pacific Ocean, and also maintained houses in Santiago and Valparaíso. While traveling in Europe, Cuba, and China, Neruda embarked upon a period of incessant writing and feverish creation. One of his major works, Odas elementales (Elemental Odes), was published in 1954. Its verse was written in a new poetic style—simple, direct, precise, and humorous—and it contained descriptions of everyday objects, situations, and beings (e.g., “Ode to the Onion” and “Ode to the Cat”). Many of the poems in Odas elementales have been widely anthologized. Neruda’s poetic output during these years was stimulated by his international fame and personal happiness; 20 books of his appeared between 1958 and his death in 1973, and 8 more were published posthumously. In his memoirs, Confieso que he vivido (1974; Memoirs), Neruda summed up his life through reminiscences, comments, and anecdotes.
In 1969 Neruda campaigned for the leftist candidate Salvador Allende, who appointed him ambassador to France after being elected president of Chile. While already ill with cancer in France, Neruda in 1971 learned that he had been awarded the Nobel Prize for Literature. After traveling to Stockholm to receive his prize, he returned to Chile bedridden and terminally ill and survived by only a few days his friend Allende, who died in a right-wing military coup.
Neruda’s body of poetry is so rich and varied that it defies classification or easy summary. It developed along four main directions, however. His love poetry, such as the youthful Twenty Love Poems and the mature Los versos del Capitán (1952; The Captain’s Verses), is tender, melancholy, sensuous, and passionate. In “material” poetry, such as Residencia en la tierra, loneliness and depression immerse the author in a subterranean world of dark, demonic forces. His epic poetry is best represented by Canto general, which is a Whitmanesque attempt at reinterpreting the past and present of Latin America and the struggle of its oppressed and downtrodden masses toward freedom. And finally there is Neruda’s poetry of common, everyday objects, animals, and plants, as in Odas elementales.
These four trends correspond to four aspects of Neruda’s personality: his passionate love life; the nightmares and depression he experienced while serving as a consul in Asia; his commitment to a political cause; and his ever-present attention to details of daily life, his love of things made or grown by human hands. Many of his other books, such as Libro de las preguntas (1974; The Book of Questions), reflect philosophical and whimsical questions about the present and future of humanity. Neruda was one of the most original and prolific poets to write in Spanish in the 20th century, but despite the variety of his output as a whole, each of his books has unity of style and purpose.
Neruda’s work is collected in Obras completas (1973; 4th ed. expanded, 3 vol.). Most of his work is available in various English translations. Four essential works are Twenty Love Poems and a Song of Despair, translated by W.S. Merwin (1969, reissued 1993); Residence on Earth, and Other Poems, translated by Angel Flores (1946, reprinted 1976); Canto general, translated by Jack Schmitt (1991); and Elementary Odes of Pablo Neruda, translated by Carlos Lozano (1961). All the Odes (2013) collected Neruda’s odes both in the original Spanish and in English translation. Then Come Back: The Lost Neruda (2016) is a collection (in Spanish and English) of 21 previously unpublished poems discovered in his archives.
By Manuel E. Duran, Roberto González Echevarría / Source: Britannica